Using JMP® to Evaluate the Phytotoxicity of Disinfecting Washes to Control Spread of Sudden Oak Death on Camellia Plants
Ned Jones, 1-alpha Solutions; Craig Ramsey, US Department of Agriculture; Heather Hammack, Horticulturist, Colorado State University
Native plant pathogens are a costly problem in ornamental plant industries around the world. However, exotic pathogens are especially damaging and can be rapidly moved great distances to many locations if nursery stock is infected. Plant material are being shipped increasing distances around the country and around the world, disinfection of plant material has become a top priority. Difficult pathogens to eradicate, including Phytophthora ramorum (Sudden Oak Death), make this even more challenging. To prevent quarantines of nurseries, research has shifted towards finding a valid treatment method for nursery stock contaminated with P. ramorum. Electro-BioCide (EB) (Strategic Resource Optimization Inc. (SRO), Denver, CO) a patent-protected, EPA registered, general use oxidant disinfectant, composed of a proprietary blend of chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), surfactant, and pH buffering may be a potential disinfectant for the nursery industry. After testing and implementation in both medical and military industries, scientists at SRO believe that E-B may be a valid disinfectant option for nursery plants. E-B has never been tested on plant material. Research needs to be completed to determine any phytotoxic effects. In this research, Electro-BioCide will be tested alongside Oxidate (BioSafe Systems, East Hartford, CT), a widely used hydrogen dioxide disinfectant, to determine if it may replace Oxidate as a safer broadspectrum oxidant disinfectant. To enhance our understanding of any impacts E-B may have on camellia foliage, chlorophyll fluorescence was used to determine foliar damage. Chlorophyll fluorescence has proven on many occasions that it can be useful in detecting stress in plants from various biotic and abiotic stressors, including chemical damage, even before visual indicators are present. Before being used to disinfect material, any disinfectant needs to be evaluated to determine its toxicity to plants.